Also known as: Heart muscle disease
The normal heart muscle carries out the pumping action by squeezing and relaxing in a rhythmic way.
Cardiomyopathy is a condition that causes the heart muscle either to stretch, stiffen, or thicken, causing the heart to not pump properly. As this progresses, it can ultimately lead to heart failure.
Due to damage caused by coronary artery disease and heart attacks causing decreased blood flow to the heart.
Dilated Cardiomyopathy – caused by overstretching of the heart. Due to this, the heart can’t squeeze blood out properly.
- Valvular disease
- Heavy alcohol use
- Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) deficiency
- Thyroid imbalances
- Complications during or after pregnancy
- Kidney Disease
- Long History of High Blood Pressure
- Prolonged Tachycardia (high heart rate)
- Medications – certain chemotherapy agents
- Illicit drugs – like steroids, cocaine, amphetamines
- Family history
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy – occurs when the heart muscle becomes too thick, especially the left ventricle and the septum (the muscle that divides left and right ventricles). This reduces the amount of blood the heart can squeeze out. If the septum becomes thick enough that it blocks the blood from going out of the heart, it is called Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy (HOCM). This may cause sudden death, especially in athletes.
- Family history
- High blood pressure
- Old age
Restrictive Cardiomyopathy – occurs when the heart muscle becomes too stiff. After the heart squeezes out blood, it can’t relax properly so the blood can’t properly fill the heart before it pumps again.
- Scarring of heart muscle
- Iron building up in the heart (hemochromatosis)
- Cancer medication
- Other systemic diseases like sarcoidosis
Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia – a rare, genetic type that occurs when scar tissue replaces the healthy muscle of the right ventricle
Note: Not everyone may experience all symptoms
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